Giraffa camelopardalis (Giraffa camelopardalis) : A ruminant artiodactyl of Africa, whose Latin name means “leopard – patterned camel”. They are the tallest living land animals in the world. It can stand 6-8 meters tall from head to foot, weighs about 700 kilograms, and is 1.5 meters tall when it is born. It has a wide forehead, a pointed snout, and large erect ears. It has a pair of bony short horns on the top of its head, which cover the skin and hairs. The neck is particularly long (about 2 meters), and the nape has 1 row of mane; Short body; The limbs are tall and strong, the forelimbs are slightly longer than the hind limbs, and the hooves are broad; The tail is short with black tufts at the tail end. The teeth were primitive low crown teeth, which could not feed on grass but only on leaves. Tongue longer, can be used for feeding; With short horns that are covered with hairy skin.
It inhabits tropical and subtropical savannas, shrubs, open alacia woodland, arid and open savannas and semi-desert areas with few trees. It is a herbivore and takes leaves and twigs as its staple food. Giraffes live about 27 years in the wild and more than 29 years in zoos. Native to Africa, chiefly from sub-Saharan to South Africa in eastern Transvaaz, Natal, and northern Botswana. Has disappeared from most of West Africa, with the exception of a small remnant in Niger. Giraffes have been reintroduced to the game in South Africa. The national animal of South Africa.
Body type: 12m tall, 35m-43m long, weighing 60-124 tons
Age: Cretaceous Period (100 million to 93 million years ago)
Argentinosaurus belongs to the Titanosauria group of sauropods, meaning the dinosaurs found in Argentina.
There was a long period of climate stability in the late Jurassic, when the climate was warm and suitable for the growth of a large number of fern and other sauropod dinosaurs’ favorite plants, so that these dinosaurs could grow very large. By the Cretaceous, most of the sauropods had disappeared due to climate change. But there was one species of sauropod in Argentina that not only survived, but evolved to be even bigger than its Jurassic ancestors — Argentinosaurus. Argentinosaurus is undoubtedly the ultimate product of sauropod evolution.
Argentinosaurus is a large herbivorous dinosaur, only the Maplosaurus can be upset with. It is one of the largest sauropods in the world. When the fossil of Argentinosaurus was first found, others thought it was the bone of some kind of monster, but it was finally discovered by scientists, it is a huge dinosaur fossil, already in the Atlanta Museum.
Age: Cretaceous (112 million-93 million years ago)
Body type: 11-15 meters long, 4-10 tons
Spinosaurus was a semi-aquatic animal with long spines on its back, which were extended by nerve spines of the backbone, up to 2 meters in length. The spines were connected by skin to form a huge sail. It has webbed feet, conical teeth, a slender mouth, and leg bones as dense as those of a crocodile. Feeds on fish and shellfish.
Age: Late Cretaceous (68-65 million years ago)
Body type: 11.5-14.7 meters long, hip height 4.2-5.2 meters. Weight: 8-14.85 tons
Tyrannosaurus Rex had very small arms, equivalent to the arms of an adult. They can’t touch their mouth, let alone their feet.
Sitting at the top of the food chain in the late Cretaceous, Tyrannosaurus Rex could have hunted all kinds of dinosaurs
Body type: Can weigh up to 4-5 tons
Extinction time: about 8,000 years ago
The ground sloth, also known as the Great otter or the American ground otter, lived in Central and South America during the Pleistocene. It was about the size of the Asian elephant and was the largest ground otter.
The earthy otter has a small head and simple teeth without hard enamel, so it constantly grows new teeth to replace worn ones. Because its teeth and bone structure are very similar to the sloth, it is closely related to the slow-moving sloth, and because it lives on the ground, it is called the ground otter.
Body type: 8.23 meters in length, 5.28 meters in shoulder height, 3-9 meters in height, 3-20 tons in weight
Age: Oligocene – Early Miocene
The Megaloceros family consists of 12 genera, of which the Junggar Megaloceros is the largest land mammal ever.
Giant rhinoceros, a relative of the rhinoceros, roamed the forests of Central Asia about 34 to 23 million years ago. Because giant rhinoceros are tall and have a long neck, they feed on the leaves in the tree canopy. Scientists believe that the migration from forest to grassland ultimately led to the extinction of the giant rhino.
Body type: about 7.5 meters in length, 4.500-6 tons in weight, can grow to 10.7 meters in length
Extinction Date: 1768 due to heavy hunting by humans
The large cow, also known as the giant dugong or Stella manatee, was discovered in the Bering Strait in 1741 by naturalist George Stella, who was traveling with explorer Vitus Bering and is the only biologist known to have seen a live large cow.
It has thick, short, dull, paddle-shaped forelimbs, black and thick skin, like oak-bark, a small head, no teeth, and two flat, white bones in its mouth, one in the upper jaw and the other in the lower jaw. There are only carpal bones and metacarpals at the end of the forelimbs, and phalanges degenerate to almost complete disappearance. The ear hole is small, and the inner ear structure is quite developed. The vision is poor, and the world must be heard by the ear.
Large sea cows feed on large algae, and they are the only animals in the order Manatees that eat algae as a staple food.
They are not afraid of humans and are slow, making them fairly easy to catch.
Age: 3 million to 10, 000 years ago
Body type: 2.7 meters long, 200-400 kg
Food: Prey on mammals, such as bison, deer, three-tailed horses, etc.
Stegodontidae is classified in the subfeline stegodontidae, Iguanodontidae and felidae, and includes two families of the submarsupial class, which lived in different periods of the Cenozoic era and developed their own swordlike canine teeth.
Saber-toothed tiger forelimbs muscular, powerful, in the prey only rely on the strength of the forelimbs to bring it down. The upper canine teeth can be up to 120 mm long and are clearly visible even when the mouth is closed. The 120mm teeth Pierce the animal’s throat, killing the prey instantly in less than a minute.
Stegodon became extinct in the Early Pleistocene, probably due to competition and climate change between Cousins and descendants of Serratus, which later became the dominant big cats of the Ice Age.
Body type: up to 9 meters long, four to five meters tall, weighing more than ten tons
Age of existence: 12 million to 1 million years ago
Stegodon lived in Asia and Africa, mainly herbivorous, eating up to 1 to 2 tons per day
The stegodon had long legs, and the tusks in the upper jaw were both long and large, curved upward; Short jaw, no tusks.
Yellow River Stegodon, or “Yellow River Elephant” for short, is the world’s largest and most complete individual fossil of a stegodon, 4 meters high and 8 meters long, with incisors 3.03 meters long.
Body type: about 4.5 meters high, incisor length 2.5 meters, weight up to 15 tons
Age of existence: 1.8 million BC — 10,000 BC
The mammoth’s back is the highest point of its body, and it drops steeply from its back. There is an obvious depression in its neck, which makes it look like a hunchbacked old man. No lower incisors, upper incisors very long, upward, outward curl.
Mammoths lived on grasslands and hills in the high cold region, eating grasses and beans in summer and shrubs and bark in winter. However, they migrated south in winter and returned to their habitat in spring when the ice and snow melted.
A cold-climate animal, mammoths were a behemoth of the ice age.